Course Overview

Anemia is a common hematological disorder in veterinary patients. Generally speaking, anemia is a readily identified clinical problem in cats and dogs. However, identification of the specific etiology of anemia can be challenging. The 4 Hs of Anemia will provide an overview of the identification process.

The 4 H's of Anemia is a free course provided by VetMedTeam in educational partnership with the Merck Veterinary Manual.


Continuing Education Credits

Course meets the requirements for 2 RACE hours of continuing education credit for veterinary technicians and veterinarians in jurisdictions which recognize AAVSB's RACE approval. However, participants should be aware that some boards have limitations on the number of hours accepted in certain categories and/or restrictions on certain methods of delivery.

RACE Subject Category: Medical; Delivery Method: Non-Interactive Distance; Program Number 744033.



Content Author

Kelly D. Mitchell, BSc., D.V.M., DVSc., DACVIM (SAIM)


Course Focus and Learning Objectives

This course is appropriate for medical members of the veterinary practice team seeking to brush up on anemia in cats and dogs.

Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to:

  • discuss the clinical signs and physical exam findings suggestive of anemia
  • interpret clinical signs in light of the severity of the anemia and explain how this relates to differential diagnoses
  • classify anemia by pathophysiology as one of the four “H’s”
  • compare and contrast the terms “regenerative anemia” and “non-regenerative anemia” and provide examples of each
  • identify the features of the erythron that are characteristic of a regenerative anemia
  • classify anemia based on cell size, hemoglobin content, and regenerative response, providing examples of each
  • list the common causes of acute and chronic blood loss anemia
  • summarize the hematological criteria for diagnosis of primary immune-mediated haemolytic anemia in the dog
  • list the treatment(s) of choice for canine immune-mediated haemolytic anemia and explain the role of transfusion therapy
  • list the common household sources of zinc that could lead to zinc toxicosis
  • list the clinical indications for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
  • list the major canine and feline blood groups and explain their role in blood product choice during blood transfusion therapy
  • recognize the indications for blood transfusion therapy and calculate the required replacement red blood cell volume


Open Enrollment with Immediate Access and Individual Time Limits

This is an open enrollment course. Participants may enroll at any time. Upon submission of enrollment the participant is immediately added to the course. The course welcome email provides login and other important information.

This is an asynchronous course, meaning it does not contain real time components. Participants do not need to be logged into the course at specific times to attend lectures or view presentations.

Participants do not need to complete the course in one sitting. However, students who do not access the course within 30 days of last access will be processed as incomplete. Any activity within the course will reset to the full 30 days time allotment.

Participants who are unable to complete a course may re-enroll at their convenience providing the course is still available.


Completion Requirements

The completion requirements for this course are:

  • complete the examination with a score of 80% or better - multiple attempts are permitted
  • submit the course survey

Upon submission of the final completion requirement, the participant will automatically be marked as completed and the course completion email will be sent out. The participant will have immediate access to the certificate.


Participant Feedback

... I love learning about anemias. Very relevant to emergency medicine. Learning what the different anemias look like on the slides.

... I needed a review of anemia and liked being able to glimpse at the new Merck Manual

... I would not change anything about the course material, very knowledgeable information provided, I enjoyed this course! Thank you!

... I found the information something I can apply to work

... I liked the detail of the Merck Manual with the overview of the presentation. Presenting the material this way gives you the option to skim over the subject material or delve further into it.

... Good review, and many more obscure facts that were new to me.

...I liked that I could complete it in my own time frame and pick up where I left off.

...Good questions that were creative.

...The articles linked in the presentation were very in depth.

...The course was a great refresher course since graduating, but I also learned some new information. Very informative.

...I enjoyed the online aspect, the material was easy to obtain and read on my time. Very thorough and difficult examination but shows the areas that need to be improved upon and highlights weakness. Great course.

...I like how the anemias were broken into different catagories instead of a basic lump of information. My favorite part was learning about zinc toxicity that answered a lot of questions I had.



Price: FREE