Course Overview

She is a good dog that has never urinated in the house - why is she doing it?

Why is my cat in the litter box constantly but nothing is happening?

Why does my pet keep getting these urinary tract infections?

These are all too familiar questions asked by clients. What are the answers? What are the causes? What are the most current and effective treatment options available?

Urology-related diseases account for a large number of the clinical cases presented to veterinary hospitals. Urinary tract infections, incontinence and uroliths are just some of the cases presented. Many urinary tract conditions are confusing and frustrating for pet owners, resulting in lowered client compliance and client retention when not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Diagnosing the correct disease or condition upon the pets first visit to the practice, along with formulating an effective treatment plan, is critical.

Internal Medicine: Advanced Concepts in Small Animal Urology is a 6-week course that will guide the veterinarian to a practical understanding of the factors involved with difficult urology cases. This course is also valuable for the veterinary technician assisting with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. Course participants will be able to effectively evaluate the urinary system through history, physical exams and diagnostic testing in order to accurately identify the disease process, and provide clients with options that will ensure patient comfort and client satisfaction. Participants are not required to work in practice to complete this course. 


Continuing Education Credits

Course meets the requirements for 15 RACE hours of continuing education credit for veterinary technicians and veterinarians in jurisdictions which recognize AAVSB's RACE approval. However, participants should be aware that some boards have limitations on the number of hours accepted in certain categories and/or restrictions on certain methods of delivery.

This course is an interactive online course that meets RACE requirements; program number 57-11310.


Veterinary Technician Specialty Academy Acceptance

The Academy of Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians (AIMVT)

The Internal Medicine: Advanced Concepts in Small Animal Urology course is accepted by the Academy towards continuing education requirements.

The Academy of Veterinary Technicians in Clinical Practice (AVTCP)

The Internal Medicine: Advanced Concepts in Small Animal Urology course is accepted by the Academy towards continuing education requirements.


Course Content

Internal Medicine: Advanced Concepts in Small Animal Urology is an advanced course that addresses the diagnostic indicators and clinically advanced treatment protocols for dogs and cats experiencing a urology related condition. Uncomplicated, complicated and recurrent urinary tract infections are covered at length, along with the appropriate diagnostic and treatment regimens. Urolithiasis, FLUTD, feline idiopathic cystitis, urinary incontinence and upper and lower motor neuron bladder are just a few of the additional topics covered in this comprehensive course.


Course Focus and Learning Objectives

Internal Medicine: Advanced Concepts in Small Animal Urology is an intense course that covers all aspects of urology. While designed for the veterinarian, advanced veterinary technicians will also find this course helpful. Even though diagnosis remains in the hands of the veterinarian, it is vital for veterinary technicians to have a good understanding of urology. It is recommended that veterinary technicians have a strong foundation in basic urology and anatomy prior to taking this course.

Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to:

  • Describe the pathophysiology of a urinary tract infection (UTI), including the breakdown of normal host defenses, risk factors for development of, and the most common bacteria associated with, UTIs
  • Implement an appropriate diagnostic plan for a patient with a suspected UTI
  • Differentiate complicated vs. uncomplicated UTIs, and choose appropriate antimicrobial therapy
  • Define subclinical bacteriuria and identify when treatment is indicated
  • Describe the pathophysiology, typical signalment, and diagnostic workup and expected results for the following urolith types: calcium oxalate, struvite, urate, cystine, and silicate
  • Compare and contrast non-surgical management options for urolithiasis including dissolution, voiding urohydropropulsion, catheter assisted stone retrieval, and lithotripsy and identify when each option is appropriate
  • Define feline lower urinary tract disease and feline idiopathic cystitis, and implement appropriate treatment plans for each
  • List the etiologies of urethral obstruction in cats and dogs and define the metabolic and physiologic consequences of urethral obstruction
  • Formulate an appropriate diagnostic and treatment plan for a male cat with a urethral obstruction, including an understanding of non-traditional approaches to treatment
  • Formulate a diagnostic and treatment plan for cats with ureteral obstruction and assess when both medical and surgical management is appropriate
  • Discuss the basic neuromuscular control of micturition and form a clinical approach to patients with micturition disorders
  • Compare and contrast the various treatment options for urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence and how to implement them in a step-wise fashion
  • Distinguish between and upper motor neuron bladder and a lower motor neuron bladder and define the causes of each
  • Identify the characteristics associated with detrusor-urethral/reflex dyssynergia, the appropriate diagnostic workup, and the treatment options


Participation Access Parameters

The design of this course allows participants to enroll in this course after it has begun, up until the enrollment deadline date. Participants who enroll after the start date do not miss out on any components of this course.

This course allows each student to proceed based on an individual schedule, as long as all assignments are submitted but he assignment submission deadline.



Participant Feedback

...I liked the feedback from Dr O'Keil and the practical aspect of the assignments and the case studies. I am re-writing some protocols at are clinics. I want to try some of the more conservative methods to relieve feline urethral obstruction for the clients with financial constraints.

...The ability not only to answer questions on the course content as it was written in the book but also to get feedback on different approaches, to discuss other options etc.

...If i had simply read the reading material for the course I would have gained much less insight and depth of knowledge than I did from doing the assignments and case studies. The assignments and case studies made the learning process much more interesting and much more effective. Dr O'Kell gave feedback (very promptly!) every assignment and case study which I found very helpful and encouraging.

...This was my first ever online CPD course. I enjoyed it! Sometimes I felt like it was aimed a little higher than the level of basic veterinary clinic, but I suppose that is the point. I think the most beneficial thing is that it reinforced what I already knew, but more importantly dislodged some misconceptions I had about treatment protocols and why it is important to not skip out on certain steps (urine cultures and radiographs to r/o uroliths) specifically.

...The part on the urinary infections with the guidelines on treatment (ie duration and antibiotic choices). Also the chapter on uroliths with the different treatment options and post-removal guidelines was very helpful.

...The case studies are incredibly useful - instead of just spitting back information from the book, it forces you to apply the knowledge in a similar way that you would in practice.


Required Materials

Canine and Feline Nephrology and Urology, 2nd Edition by Dennis Chew, DVM, DACVIM; Stephan DiBartola, DVM, DACVIM; Patricia Schenck, DVM, PhD; Elsevier

Important Text Information:

It is mandatory that each participant has access to this textbook as the content of the book is not reproduced within the course. It is up to each person to determine the best way to acquire the text. Some will already have the text in their library and, therefore, will not need to purchase another copy. The text is available as a print publication and as an eBook. Where to purchase and in what format is totally up to the participant. The text is not included in the fee for this course.

USA residents: Elsevier texts, both print and eBook, are available via the VetMedTeam Elsevier Text Portal at discounts off regular retail of 25 - 35 %. If you would like to visit the portal to take advantage of the discount please use this link:

VetMedTeam's Elsevier Text Portal

Important: Regardless of which option the participant chooses, access to a copy of the textbook is mandatory. Without the text, the student will not be able to complete the assignments, case studies and examinations. If enrolling close to or beyond the course start date, it is recommended that the text be purchased as an eBook to prevent text acquisition related delays. VetMedTeam has no control over shipping delays and other related problems.


Additional Courses Using Required Text

The textbook used in this course is also used in the following course. Click on the course title below to view details regarding that course. Use your browser's back button to return to this course.

Internal Medicine: Advanced Concepts in Nephrology


Course Completion Requirements

Completed students are awarded a certificate of completion. Completion requirements include:

  • Instructor Graded Interactive Module Assignments: Designed to help the participant reinforce newly learned material

  • Instructor Graded Interactive Case Study Assignments: Designed to help the participant apply the newly learned skills and knowledge though patient and practice based scenarios

  • Examinations: All examinations must be submitted with a score of 80% or better

  • Course survey


Course Instructor

Allison O’Kell, DVM, MS, DACVIMAllison O’Kell, DVM, MS, DACVIM

Dr. Allison O’Kell received her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. She completed a rotating small animal medicine and surgery internship at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM) at Virginia Tech. Following the internship, Dr. O’Kell completed a residency in small animal internal medicine VMRCVM, along with a Master’s degree in Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences.

She achieved Diplomate status with the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine in July of 2012.

Dr.O'Kell has published several papers in peer-reviewed veterinary journals.


Upcoming Sessions

October 01, 2015 - Registration deadline is 11:00 PM Eastern October 06, 2015



Price: $209.00



VetMedTeam 2014